The term conjugate heat transfer (CHT) is used to describe processes which involve variations of temperature within solids and fluids, due to thermal interaction between the solids and fluids. The exchange of thermal energy between the two physical bodies is called study of Heat Transfer, the rate of transferred heat is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the bodies. A typical example is the heating or cooling of a solid object by the flow of air in which it is immersed and some other example includes conduction through solids, free and forced convection in the gases/fluids and thermal radiation.
Conjugate heat transfer corresponds with the combination of heat transfer in solids and heat transfer in fluids. In solids, conduction often dominates whereas in fluids, convection usually dominates. Efficiently combining heat transfer in fluids and solids is the key to designing effective coolers, heaters, or heat exchangers. Forced convection is the most common way to achieve high heat transfer rate. In some applications, the performances are further improved by combining convection with phase change (for example liquid water to vapor phase change).
Heat transfer in solids and heat transfer in fluids are combined in the majority of applications. This is because fluids flow around solids or between solid walls, and because solids are usually immersed in a fluid.